“The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.”
Human Rights are intended to preserving the dignity of the people. Although human rights are indispensable for supporting human life and promoting development of woman and man yet the domestic political structure, levels of social technological and economic development, the resource-base and the religio-cultural backdrop of the countries, do have a deep influence on the policies and priorities of different countries towards human rights.
Human Rights are the rights, which every human being must have against the state and other public endorsement by virtue of being a member of the human family irrespective of any other factor. These are rights which are inborn in all citizens, because of their being human.
These are the rights which are indisputable because the progressive conscience of the community would not permit the sacrifice of those rights by any citizen even of his own inclination. These are the rights which are inviolable because they are not just fundamental for the advancement of human uniqueness and for ensuring its dignity but also as devoid of them men would be equal to animals.
The United Nations Charter speaks of human rights in its preamble and in six other articles.
“Human rights. The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are considered to be entitled, often held to include the rights to life, liberty, equality, and a fair trial, freedom from slavery and torture, and freedom of thought and expression.”
Human Rights in India: Human rights in India necessitate the presence and protection of a well harmonized society. Only the society and the state can ensure these human rights to the individual. But to benefit from these rights seamlessly the citizens of India too must obey the social norms as it should be.
All the same in India under “the Protection of Human Rights 1993 (No. 10 of 1994)”, the Human Rights have been explained in the following manner:
2 (1) d) “Human rights” means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.”
India has also enacted the protection of Human Rights Act in 1993 and also constituted the National Human Rights Commission, the State Human Rights Commission in different States and Human Right Courts.
Regardless of these evidently inflexible positions, some shifts are also visible in each viewpoint of human rights. Violation of human rights in India is now seen as violations of the democratic principles enshrined in the Indian Constitution as well as violation of India’s global obligation of humanitarian international law and international covenants.
The analysis of the human rights should be made from three perspectives:
The Socio-Economic dimension of Human Rights in India,
The legal dimension of Human Rights in India and
The role of international organizations and NGOs in promotion of human rights.
Steps taken to Protect Human Rights in India: In India, all citizens are entitled to enjoy the privilege of human rights. Several initiatives have been undertaken in India for the greater protection of the women, children and certain other groups of the society such as:
Sati Practice has been prohibited in India.
The minimum age for marriage has been fixed by law. A boy below the age of 21 and a girl below the age of 18 cannot marry.
The Protection of Human Rights Act, was enacted in 1993.
Right to Information act was passed in 2005.
Child Labor (below the age of 14) is prohibited in factories, and mines.
Right to education has been accepted as a fundamental right in India. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act was passed in 2009.
Dowry System has been prohibited by law. The Dowry Prohibition Act was passed in 1961.
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act was passed in 2005 to protect women from domestic atrocities.